Thursday 16 May 2013

Cedar Wood Oil (Cedrus Deodara)

                                    CEDAR WOOD OIL

BOTANICAL NAME Cedrus deodara
EXTRACTION METHOD: Steam distilled

ORIGIN: The Indian Himalayan Plateau
COLOUR: Pale yellow to green
                                     Cedar Wood Essential Oil is extracted with the help of steam distillation from the wood pieces of Cedar Wood tree, bearing the scientific name Juniperus Virginiana (also known as Cedrus Doedara, Cedrus Atlantica, Cedrus Libani etc. depending upon the regions where they are found) in other nomenclature systems. Anyway, that does not affect the medicinal values of Cedar Wood Essential Oil a bit. Cedar Wood is basically a plant of cold climate and found in high altitudes. 

                                                   The principle constituents of the oil are sesquiterpene i.e., α- himachalene (12.5%) and β-himachalene (43%)associated with them are sesquiterpene alcohols (himachalol, allohimachalol, himadarol, isocentdarol and centdarol. Through spectroscopic analysis , some compounds were isolated from the pine needles of cedrus deodara are identified as 9-hydroxy-dodecanoic acid , ethyl laurate , ethyl stearate , 3-beta-hydroxy-oleanolic acid methyl ester , beta-sitosterol , shikimic acid , methyl coniferin , ferulic acid, beta-glucoside.


Anti-bacterial activity:

                                     Leaf and cone part of plant (C. deodara) were extracted with chloroform, methanol and acetone. The chemical composition of C. deodara and volatile oils obtained from the leaves by steam distillation was analysed using gas chromatograph and mass spectroscopy analysis .Volatile oil and α- and β-pinene shows good anti bacterial activity. Extract and oil obtained from the root, stem, and leaf of plant of C. deodara found to have a good antibacterial action.

Anti-fungal activity:
                                          The fungicidal activity is persisted for longer period in essential oils of the plant. Himachalol, isolated from the oil also have shown antifungal

Neuroleptic activity:
                                           The heartwood of C. deodara plant was used to enhance cerebral function, balance the mind, body connection, and nervous system and strengthen the brain. It was reported to possess CNS depressant and neuroleptic activity.
Anti-diabetic Activity:
                                          Powdered woods of C. deodora defatted with petroleum ether and extracted from ethanol. Further ethanol extract was subjected for physiochemical screening.
The capsule prepared from the wood extract of the plant are used in acute toxicity and antidiabetic which revealed that the study had a vital role in the management of diabetes.
Antioxidant Activity:
                                C. deodara was also reported to have good antioxidant property. Two processes were involved to identify the antioxidant components of Cedrus deodara. Fractionation and purification was done of dried heartwood powder of C. deodara, first defatted with petroleum ether and then extracted with chloroform.
The chloroform extract showed strong antioxidant activity on 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical.
Anti-secretory and anti-ulcer activities:
                                        The volatile oil extracted by steam distillation of C. deodara wood was examined for its gastric anti-secretory and antiulcer.
Cedrus deodara significantly reduced the number of ulcer, ulcer score and ulcer index.
Anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity:
                                                  Aqueous extract of air-dried stem bark of the plant was screened for ifs anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity.
Wound healing property:
                                             Its oil has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activities. The plant has also shown wound healing properties and is particularly useful in infective wounds.
Immunomodulatory activity:
                                                    Volatile oil of cedrus deodara at a dose 50 and 100mg/kg significantly inhibit neutrophil adhesion to nylon fibers and also inhibit type III hypersensitivity reaction i.e., arthus reaction induced by methylated bovine serum albumin and it also inhibit the sheep erythrocytes and oxazolone induced delayed type hypersensitive reaction.
Cytotoxic Activity; 
                                  “CD lignin mixture” isolated from the stem wood of Cedrus deodara consisted of (-)-wikstromal (75 - 79 %), (-)-matairesinol (9 - 13 %) and benzylbutyrolactol (7 - 11 %). This mixture was evaluated for its in vitro anticancer activity. This lignin mixture showed significant dose-dependent effects against several cancer cell lines such as cervix, colon, liver, prostate and neuroblastoma.
Anti-malarial activity
                                       Essential oil from C. deodara was evaluated for bioactivity against the adults of Culex quinuefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. Plant shows moderate activity against these two mosquitos.
Mast cell stabilizing and lipoxygenase inhibitory activity:
                                        Volatile oil of C. deodara, administered orally at the doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. Himachalol, which is isolated from the wood part of the plant, is also used in asthma, having the property of mast cell stabilization.
Anti-allergic activity:
                                          Phytochemical investigation shows that presence of some medicinal important constituents in the plants are responsible for the treatment various disease. Likewise, himachalol is one of the major constituents, which is reported to have potent anti-allergic property.
Anti-tubercular activity:
                                            Chloroform and acetone extract obtained from the leaf and cone part of plant shows good anti-tubercular activity caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis in tuberculosis gland.

Anxiolytic and anticonvulsant activity:
                                             Currently the most widely prescribed medication for anxiety disorders are Benzodiazepines but because of unwanted side effects, development of new pharmacological agents from plants sources is well justified. For this reason anticonvulsant and anxiolytic activity of the plant was evaluate. The heartwood extracts of Cedrus deodara (ALCD) was studied for anxiolytic and anticonvulsant activity.
                       It prevents wounds from being septic as well as protects them from tetanus germs. It can safely be applied externally on wounds as an anti septic. It is even used as an ingredient in herbal antiseptic creams.
                          This is yet another important medicinal property of Cedar Wood Oil. It relieves spasm. Nearly all sorts of spasm and related ailments can be relieved using this oil. This includes spasm of respiratory system, intestines, muscles, heart and nerves.
                                  Cedar Wood Oil can be used as a health tonic as it tones the organic systems and stimulates metabolism. It tones up muscles, skin, nervous system, stomach, digestive system and brain functions.
                                  This is another beneficial property of Cedar Wood Oil, which can help cure a number of ailments including obesity, hypertension or high blood pressure, rheumatism, arthritis and gout, urinary tract infections and accumulation of toxins in the blood. Being a diuretic, it increases frequency of urination, which serves as a medium for removal of fat, excess water and toxins like uric acid from the body. These toxins and extra water in accumulated in the body are the main causes behind the above-mentioned ailments.
                           Cedar Wood Oil has been in use as a mosquito and insect repellant since long. If used in vaporizers, it drives away mosquitoes, flies and other insects from home.
Sedative Properties
                                 As a sedative, cedar wood oil has relaxing and calming effects. Cedar wood oil soothes inflammation, cures itching skin and relieves tension and anxiety. For aromatherapy, the oil is used in a vaporizer, in a therapeutic bath, or through inhalation of the steam.
Astringent Action
                                   Used topically, the astringent properties of cedar wood oil are beneficial on the skin. It can be used to treat acne, control oily skin, and help heal nicks from shaving. Added to water as a hair rinse, cedar wood oil helps eliminate dandruff. Cedar wood oil also helps strengthen gums and cures toothaches.
                             Cedar wood oil helps normalize sebum production and treats the infection it causes. Seborrhea is a malfunctioning of the sebaceous glands causing abnormal sebum production - which results in an infection, most often occurring on the scalp, but also on the eyebrows. Cedar wood oil cures the inflammation and reduces peeling skin.
An Expectorant
                           Congestion due to coughs or colds can be eliminated with the expectorant properties of cedar wood oil. The oil removes phlegm from the lungs and respiratory tract which will stop the coughing. It will provide headache relief and help eliminate other cold symptoms as well, such as watery eyes.
Diuretic Benefits
                                Diuretic properties of cedar wood oil will increase the frequency of urination while flushing toxins out of the body. The oil acts as a medium for the removal of excess water, as well as toxins like uric acid (which can cause gout). By removing the accumulated toxins in the blood, cedar wood oil will help cure high blood pressure, arthritis, hypertension, urinary tract infections and obesity.
                              Cedar wood oil works as an emenagogue to bring about menstruation and make it regular.
                         While cedar wood oil certainly has a lot of excellent purposes, one of the most enticing is its number of cosmetic uses. Many people like to add a little cedar wood to their skin creams in order to stave off oily skin, psoriasis, acne and dermatitis. You can also relieve itchy skin by combining this oil with an anti-itch solution.
                         Although cedar wood doesn't get mentioned with Slim Fast or Jenny Craig in regards to dieting products, this oil is actually very beneficial to those who are trying to lose weight and be healthier. The primary reason why cedar wood oil is so good as a dietary aid is because it promotes frequent urination, which helps flush out excess fat and toxins from the body.
Respiratory Aid
                            The Native Americans realized cedar wood essential oil’s benefit as a respiratory aid long ago because it reduces congestion brought on by colds and flues. All it takes is a few drops into some boiling water or a vaporizer for cedar wood to start working on phlegm and mucus trapped in the lungs.
                        Aside from having respiratory benefits when inhaled, cedar wood also does an excellent job at relaxing people. It's for this reason why those suffering from insomnia, and people who frequently meditate, love to use cedar wood essential oil. Not surprisingly, the effects of cedar wood also extend to reducing anxiety and nervousness in people.
Mouth Care
While many essential oils work as a mouthwash, cedar wood oil takes things a step further by also acting to promote overall mouth care. This product keeps teeth firmly entrenched in the gums, and works to reduce pain associated with toothaches.

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